Catalogue of ships in Middle-earth

Gondor Belfalas Umbar Castamirioni League
Harnendor Bellakar Haruzan (Near Harad) Pezarsan (Near Harad)
Cardolan Enedwaith Raj (Bozisha-Dar) Anbalukkhôr

Small coastal vessels


Long, narrow and shallow coastal trader designed for speed.



Cair-Ethir (Riverboat)

Wide, flat-bottomed merchant ship designed to move through the shallows, such as the waterways of the Balimur swamps, Ethir Anduin or Ethir Harnen.

Length: 50' (15 m). Beam: 20' (6 m). Displacement: 25 tons
Sails: square. Crew: 10 (2 officers, 8 sailors).
Cargo: 10 tons. Provisions: 7 days.
Sailing speed: 2-6 knots. Price as used: 50 gp

Harondorian wineship

Used to transport wine along rivers Malduin, Carnen, Douro and Poros.

Length: 70' (21m). Beam: 20' (6 m). Displacement: 42 tons.
Sails: square. Cargo: 46 barrels of wine (1500 gallons).
Sailing speed: 1-6 knots.


A "Wholeshale Fishmonger" is a type of advanced trader used to carry fresh fish on the Belfalas Bay and Harondor Coast.



Haradan lateen-rigged, oar-steered sailing boat used in fishing and transportation along Harnen river and bay of Tulwang. Very fast, but dangerous in stormy weather.

Length: 80' (24 m). Beam: 16' (5 m). Displacement: 42 tons
Sails: 3 lateen. Crew: 15. Cargo: 10 tons.
Provisions: 7 days. Sailing speed: 3-12 knots.
Price as used: 450 gp.

Badân (Coastal transport)

Badâns and dhows are haradan lateen-rigged, rudder-steered sailing ship common to all southern waters, from Ormal Sea to Ethir Harnen. They all show a common ancestry in ancient númenorean fishing caravels.

Width: 50' (15 m). Beam: 16' (5 m). Displacement: 27 tons
Sails: 2 lateen. Crew: 12-30. Cargo: 15-30 tons. Provisions: 14 days. Sailing speed: 2-7 knots.
Price as used: 75-200 gp.


Cairuil (Caravel)

Cairuils are post-Kin-Strife gondorian caravels rigged with square sails. In some cases an umbarean Rochros was converted to a Cairuil by moving the largest mast back to the centre of the ship and the second mast forward to the forecastle, then recutting the sails to fit the yards. They are slower but more easily handled by the less experienced Gondorian shipmates.

Rochros (Caravel)

Rochros is a nimble, fast, low-swimming caravel used as a scout, trader and fisherman in the coastal waters of Umbar. It is typically rigged with two or three lateen sails which make them very maneuverable. However, the great size of the lateen yard makes it difficult and dangerous to handle on large ships in stormy weather.

Draugaer (Caravel)

Draugaer is a type privateer built in Dûsalan after 1545. It is a very fast and agile type of caravel used in the waters of Tol Uialgaer and Cape Mardruak, where it used to prey upon coastal shipping.

Length: 60-75' (18-22 m). Beam: 20-25' (6-7.5 m). Displacement: 60-100 tons.
Sails: 2-3 lateen (Rochros); 2 square, 1 lateen (Cairuil).
Crew: 15-30. Cargo: 35-50 tons. Provisions: 15-30 days.
Sailing speed: 3.5-12.5 knots.
Cost of hire: 80 sp / day. Cost to build: 1200 gp. Price as used: 625 gp.


Cairbanga (Large transport)

Sturdy lateen-rigged transports called cairbangas are the most usual beasts of burden in Belfalas Bay and coastlands of Harad. It cannot withstand stormy weather, so they follow the trunk routes along the coasts. Biggest cairbangas used as troop transports can carry about 250 soldiers or 50 horses.

Length: 100-120' (30-36.5 m). Beam: 40' (12 m).
Sails: 2 lateen-rigged. Crew: 60-80. Cargo: 200-400 tons. Provisions: 30 days. Sailing speed: 1-8 knots.
Cost of hire: 180 sp / day. Price as used: 1500 gp.

Celbar (Cog)

Simple, sturdy and sluggish one-masted cogs are very common trading and whaling ships in the northern waters, Cardolan and coasts of Anfalas. Because they are easy to build and cheap to maintain, they became popular even in Gondor when shipbuilding traditions deteriorated in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Length: 45'-90' (13-27 m). Beam: 18-20' (5-6 m).
Sails: 1 square-rigged. Crew: 10-20. Cargo: 30-100 tons. Provisions: 60 days. Sailing speed: 1-8 knots.
Cost of hire: 50 sp / day. Price as used: 1100 gp.

Herring buss

From the Age of Ship-Kings onwards, the fishing fleets of Gondor increased until they were very large. Herring busses are type of merchant ships devoted solely for fishing. When bringing in the catch, the mainmast and the foremast are lowered so that the standing rigging would be cleared out of the way and almost the entire length of the ship could be used to work the nets.

Celfalas (Holk)

 A small carrack built for trade. It has a deep and round hull, round stern. It is slightly larger, faster and seaworthy ship than the cog, capable of crossing high seas and offering space enough to carry provisions for long voyages.

Length: 98' (30 m). Beam: 20' (6 m).
Sails: 2 square-rigged, lateen in mizzenmast.
Crew: 30 (5 officers, 25 seamen). Cargo: 120-200 tons. Provisions: 90 days.
Sailing speed: 3-8 knots.
Cost of hire: 120 sp / day. Cost to build: ~2000 gp.
Price as used: 1400 gp. Upkeep: ~500 sp / month.


A square-rigged vessel with two masts, carrying both oars and sails. It is a favourite of Gondorian privateers. A brigantine with a lateen or fore-and-aft rig on the mainmast is called hermaphrodite brig.

Full-rigged ships

Cir (Carrack)

Cír, which means only "ship" in umbarean slang, is known to us as the carrack. Light carrack is similar in construction to the gondorian Celfalas, but it is three-masted. It has a high main mast with a huge sail, fitted with a bonnet. High forecastle gives fighting edge to both marines and main ballistas. Light carracks are common in Umbar, both as traders and as warships.

Length: 80-115' (24-35 m). Beam: 27-33' (8-10 m).
Sails: 2 square-rigged, lateen in the mizzenmast.
Crew: 40-50. Soldiers: 80. Cargo: 200 tons.
Provisions: 30 days. Sailing speed: 1-10 knots.
Cost to build: ~3000 gp. Price as used: 800-1200 gp.

Cairon (Greatship)

Greatships are almost exclusively man-of-wars. It differs from umbarean carracks with its heavy armoured ram under the bowsprit, a feature borrowed from the galley. The accommodation towards the stern is a massive sterncastle about three decks high, with many crossbows or small ballistas.

Length: 126' (38 m). Beam: 33' (10 m). Depth: 16' (5 m).
Sails: 5 square-rigged, 2 lateen
Crew: 65. Soldiers: 150. Cargo: 500 tons.
Provisions: 30 days. Sailing speed: 1-10 knots.
Cost to build: ~7000 gp. Price as used: 2900 gp.

Gaervinas (Giant carrack)

Giant carrack of númenorean design, pinnacle of both shipwright's and seaman's skill in Gondor and Umbar. Too large and expensive to be used profitably for trade ventures and uncommon as a warship due to its cost, it is mainly used as a flagship for a large group of smaller ships.

Length: 144' (44 m). Beam: 45' (13.7 m).
Sails: 7 square, 5 lateen. Crew: 120. Soldiers: 300. Provisions: 30 days. Sailing speed: 3-10 knots.
Cost to build: ~9000-14000 gp. Price as used: no sale.


Nimgaur (White Wolf) is the most famous Gondorian privateer carrack, entering service in 1654 during the Fifteen Years' War. It was built in Linhir by Taer Talagand and Ingared Langstrand and designed to both outgun all smaller vessels and outmaneuver all bigger warships. Nimgaur was famous for its intrepid exploration mission to the Ormal Sea, longest voyage made by any Gondorian ship since the Kin-Strife.

Length: 105' (35 m). Beam: 30' (9 m).
Displacement: 394 tons. Sails: 5 square, 2 lateen. Crew: 40. Soldiers: 80.
Provisions: 40 days. Sailing speed: 3-11 knots. Armament: 2 heavy ballistae, 4 light ballistae.

Calimon Alcarin

Calimon Alcarin is the personal greatship and showpiece of late captain and oligarch Borathor Marös. Although Calimon was born of the continual wars between Umbar and Gondor, the period following her building was one of comparative peace, and she saw no action until 1621. During the Gondorian attack on Ramlond in July of that year, she was engaged by admiral Findamir's more maneuverable galleys. She remained in service until the end of the Fifteen Years' War in 1666.

Length: 185' (56 m). Beam: 54' (16.5 m).
Displacement: 2000 tons. Sails: 7 square, 7 lateen.
Crew: 120. Soldiers: 386. Provisions: 40 days.
Sailing speed: 3-10 knots. Armament: 1 catapult, 43 light ballistae.

Palanrist (Galleon)

Palanrist ("Far-voyager") is a large, multi-decked sailing ship used for both war and commerce. Faster than a carrack of the same size, it cannot take as many soldiers. Númenorean Palanrists have been used in Gondor and Umbar since the dawn of the Third Age, but the skill needed to craft such vessels disappeared after the Plague. Only post-Plague Palanrist in Gondor belongs to the Prince of Belfalas.

Length: 136' (41 m). Beam: 30' (9 m). Depth: 19' 
Sails: 5 square, 3 lateen. Crew: 100. Soldiers: 180.
Provisions: 40 days. Sailing speed: 3-12 knots.


One of the more enduring achievements of the Castamirioni was their resolution to preserve the númenorean art of shipbuilding, which survived in Umbar.Herunumen was built in 1634 in the shipyards of Abaronloni at the insistence of admiral Angamaitë, who wanted a really impressive Palanrist as his flagship. She was the last of her size to be built in Middle-Earth, and the bill was trurly terrific: 65 586 gp, 16 sp and 9½ cp. Carvings were all finished in gold leaf and stern was heavily decorated with gold, glass and lanterns. She was rebuilt at least twice, some of the rear decks being cut down and the weight of decoration reduced in an attempt to lighten her. Herunumen was accidentally burned in 1696.

Length: 212' (65 m). Beam: 48' (14.6 m).
Displacement: 1605 tons. Sails: 12 square, 1 lateen.
Crew: 180. Soldiers: 300. Provisions: 20 days.Sailing speed: 2-11 knots.

Oared ships

Aercrist (Galley)

Aercrist and other gondorian war galleys have longer keels, larger sails and more soldiers than Umbarean dromons, but they lack in their maneuverability and seaworthiness. Gondorian galleys are usually armed with two catapults and two heavy ballistae.

Length: 140' (43 m) Beam: 18' (5 m). Displacement: 195 tons.
Sails: 2 lateen. Crew: 240 rowers, 50 sailors. Soldiers: 70.
Rowing speed:
 3-7.5 knots. Sailing speed: 2.5-10 knots. Provisions: 10 days.


Galleasses are exclusively men-of-war, used as galley fleet flagships. The oars are usually only used when moving in or out harbours, or along rivers and streams. Gondorian galleasses are usually rigged in the way of a carrack. Galley-type armoured ram is fitted to the bows and the overhanging deck is used to board the enemy ship. Some galleasses have armoured forecastles with naptha throwers.

Length: 120' ( m). Beam: 18' (5 m).
Sails: 5 square, 2 lateen. Crew: 70. Soldiers: 36 gunners, 84 marines.
Provisions: 60 days.
Sailing speed: 1-10 knots.
Armament: 1 naphta thrower and 6 heavy ballistae in armoured forecastle, 1 catapult and 6 slings.


Dromons are the most important warships of the Umbarean and Bellakarian navies. They are usually propelled by both oar and sail, amd could be built in many shapes and sizes. Dromons have 72-100 oars in two banks, forecastles and reinfroced central towers near the main mast, from which the marines could use their javelins, bows and arrows and other projectiles. Most umbarean dromons are equipped with flamethrowers that discharge "Númenorean fire" (Naurnen) and catapults capable of hurling 500 kg projectiles up to 1000 meters. Many heavier dromons are also armor-plated against enemy rams. Dromons are usually rigged with lateen sails, but a few bellakarian galleys use square sails.

Length: 100-127' (30-39 m) Beam: 18' (5 m).
Displacement: 60-175 tons. Sails: 2 lateen + artemon.
Crew: 140-230 rowers. Soldiers: 30-60.
Rowing speed: 3-7.5 knots.
Sailing speed: 2-11.5 knots.
Provisions: 7 days. Cost as used: 1400-1800 gp.

Cairvagor (Great galleass)

Great galleasses or Cairvagor ("Swordsman ships") are heaviest rowed ships in existence. They cannot stand heavy weather as well as a carrack of the same size, and the endurance is lower, mainly because of the extra men needed for the oars, but they pack fearsome weaponry and are virtually invulnerable to galleys.

Length: 164' (50 m). Beam: 22' (6,7 m).
Displacement: 280 tons. Sails: 3 lateen, 1 artemon.
Crew: 300. Soldiers: 44 gunners, 100 marines.
Provisions: 20 days.
Sailing speed: 1-5 knots.
Armament: 1 naphta thrower and 8 heavy ballistae in armoured forecastle, 2 catapults and 14 light ballistae in the aftcastle.

Tolost (Artillery barge)

Tolost is an artillery barge, built mainly during Eldacar's second reign. It is an oared man-of-war with a very specialized task, being the backbone of a squadron of smaller vessels operating in restricted waters, such as Anduin or in the Ethir. It is large, heavy and can be rowed at a very low speed, but usually it is towed to its station, where it then stays for the rest of the foray. It is armed with a very large number of ballistae and catapults, and has also a very large fighting crew, often used as a reserve for the accompanying ships and boats.

Length: 190' (58 m). Beam: 70' (21 m). Sails: none.
Crew: 90 oarsmen. Soldiers: 400. Provisions: 15 days.
Rowing speed: 0.5 knots.Armament: 6 siege catapults, 20 heavy ballistae.

Ships of the Haradrim


Baggala or dhow is a traditional Haradic sailing vessel with one or more lateen sails. It is primarily used along the coasts of the Cape of Mardruak, Raj and Harshandatt. A larger dhow may have a crew of approximately thirty while smaller dhows have crews typically ranging around twelve.

Turwing (Shebek)

Shebek or Xebec, known as Turwing in Gondor, is a small, fast, three mast (originally two-masted) vessel, used exclusively in the Haradan coast, with a distinctive hull, which added a pronounced overhanging bow and stern, and rarely displacing more than 200 tons. They are typical raiding ships and greatly favoured by Umbarean and Haruze nations as corsairs, and for this purpose were built with a narrow floor to achieve a higher speed than their victims, but with a considerable beam in order to enable them to carry an extensive sail plan. Shebek can be rowed in emergency, but it is primarily a sailing ship. In peacetime operations, the shebek is known to transport post and merchandize to their designated ports of call.

Length: 80-130' (24-40 m). Beam: 16' (5 m).
Sails: 3-4 lateen. Crew: 30 sailors, 30 oarsmen.
Soldiers: 60-100 in pirate vessels.
Sailing speed: 4-15.5 knots. Provisions: 7 days.
Armament: 1-4 light ballistae. Price: 800-1400 gp.

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