Peoples of Middle-earth

Men of Morenor (Dark Continent), Utter South, Ormal Sea, Far East and Romennor (Lands of the Sun) are not included.

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First Age (Mythical era)

Second Age (Prehistoric era)

Third Age (Historical era)

Later Third Age

Edain or Atanatari
("Fathers of Men")
Folk of Beor
(dark, tall and strong)
Beorians (House of Beor)

Adûnaim (Men of Westernesse) or Númenóreans

Dúnedain of Arnor (became Rangers of the North)
Folk of Haleth
(dark, broad, stern)
Men of Brethil Dúnedain of Gondor
(and Corsairs of Umbar)
Men of Gondor
Folk of Marach
(tall and blonde)
Hadorians (House of Hador) Adûnaim of Umbar and Bellakar (merged into lesser men)
Adûnaim of Anbalukkhôr (or the "Black Númenóreans")
Adûnaim of the Dominions (the "Black Númenóreans")

Lesser Folk of Marach
(those who returned from Beleriand)

Barrow culture in Eriador Settled Eriadorans (men of Arthedain) Eriedain
Rivermen of Baranduin
Gwathló bargemen (merged into clansmen of Saralainn)
Greater Folk of Marach
(those who stayed in Rhovanion)

Those who lived along Anduin and allied themselves with the Dwarves of Durin's Folk (Longbeards)

West Rhovanic peoples Estaravi (northmen of Angmar and the Grey Mountains) (merged into Rohirrim)
Beijabar or Berningas (men of the Misty Mountains)
Rivermen of Anduin
Woodmen of Mirkwood
Ibnotithiuda (People of the Plain) North Rhovanic peoples Men of Dale Lake-men and Bardings
East Rhovanic peoples Gramiska (Plainsmen of Rhovanion)  
Ehwathrumi or Eothraim (men of southern Rhovanion) Rohirrim or the Horse-people
Those who were conquered by Númenóreans Breelanders (Men of Bree)
Arhûnerim (men who wandered into the west) Haladin
(men of the coastal forests)
Gwathuirim or Daan Mor (bronze-age inhabitants of Gondor and southern Eriador, who became subject to colonisation, subjugation, and sometimes, genocide, by Númenor.) Commoners of Cardolan Clansmen of Saralainn
Those who resisted and fled Daen Lintis (dunmen who migrated to wilderlands to preserve their culture)
Daen Coentis (men of the White Mountains) Mebden of Eryn Vorn
Dunlendings of Dunfearan
Oathbreakers (became Dead Men of Dunharrow)
Danan Lin (settled dunmen who gradually assimilated into Gondor) Orodbedhrim (slowly return to highlands)
Danan Lin Men of Gondor
Dunir (migrate to Andrast and Drúwaith Iaur)
Sakalai (coastal people)
Donan (wild men of Ered Lithui and Aegardh) (died out)
Drûghu (Drúedain) Beffraen of Eryn Vorn (died out)
Woses of Drúwaith Iaur, Harlindon and Gondor

Swarthy Men or the so-called "Easterlings of Beleriand" (Houses of Bór and Ulfang)

Urnfield culture in Northern Eriador Angmarim (men of Angmar) (destroyed in wars)
Rhudaurim (men of Rhudaur) (died out)
Beadmaker culture of Forodwaith Forodrim (men of the Northern Waste)
Lossoth (hunter-gatherers of the Ice Bay of Forochel)
Talatherim ("People of the Steppes", men of central Middle-earth who domesticated horse) Those who migrated to west Copper axe culture in Nûrn Nûrniags Men of Mordor
Ioriag Confederation (Horse-nomads) Ioriags Men of Khand
Variags
Asdriags Balchoth (confederation of peoples from central Middle-earth)
Those who never crossed Ered Harmal Sedentary peoples living east of Ered Harmal Odhriags
Nûriags Wainrider confederation
Kykurians
Ulgath or Wain-easterlings, bronze technology Murgath Logath ("the Refusers")
Sagath
Urgath Brygath (eastern Urgath)
Gathmarig (western Urgath) Igath
Kugath (intermixed with Marach) Szrel culture Dorwinrim or Folyavuldok (Men of Folyavulda)
Narnerim (men of the south, neolithic cave-dwellers and herders, who feared the sun and worshipped the moon.) Haradrim (bronze-skinned and dark-haired peoples of Harad who received grapewine, metalworking and agriculture from Númenóreans; some become Númenórean subjects, others tried to imitate their lords and founded their own states)

Haruzani peoples

Western Haruze (men of Chelkar, Haruzan, Pesarzan and Lûrmsakun)
Eastern Haruze (men of Arysis and Siakan) Men of Near Harad
Urdwan (nomadic beduins of the Dune Sea)
Bellakaze (men of Bellakar)
Apysani peoples Tedjin (pastoralists who speak Talatherin language) (destroyed in wars)
Qarsag (nomads of Bellakar) (merged into other beduins)
Aukuag (nomads of Central Harad)
Bozishnarod (men of Raj) Men of Far Harad
Sîranians (men of Sîrayn)
Gettaniyan tribesmen (Apysani beduins)
Cultures of Tulwang Bay that were assimilated by Númenóreans Balkumagânâim (the "Sea Peoples", amalgamation of Númenóreans and Narnerim who live by the sea) Sorijans (men of the Tulwang bay)
Etulians (men of the Tulwang bay)
Adena (men of Khâradûnê)
Sederi (men of Khâradûnê)
Tandê (tribesmen of the Yellow mountains)
Men of Anbalukkhôr
Nandrû (men of Malaiur)
Moredain (black races living in the Utter South, who did not adopt metalworking or agriculture). Usakani (sedentary tribes of the Savannah)
Tuktani (confederation of jungle-dwellers)
Mûmakanrim (warlike confederation of over 400 ethnic groups)
Kirani (settled people of the Utter South)
Acaanite civilization (emergence of copper alongside stone tools, early agriculture) Shay culture (uŋ saŋ giga, "the black-headed people") Mûranians (pastoral people) (conquered) Chyan people
Chaialla (nomadic tribes) Chey (war chariot culture)